Hiring for Competency: Hiring to Not Fail vs. Hiring to Succeed

by William Rudman, PhD, RHIA; Susan Hart-Hester, PhD, RHIA; John Richey, MBA, RHIA, FAHIMA; and Kathryn Jackson, RHIA

Abstract

Evolving economic and technological advances have affected the work environment and the workforce, resulting in new competency requirements for employees. Finding the right person for each job can be difficult, and new hires often fail to meet employers’ expectations. This study examined employers’ definitions of competency, instances of successful and unsuccessful hiring, and importance placed on industry credentials/certifications versus educational degrees. Findings suggest that employers’ definitions of competency are not aligned with narrative stories of successful hires, that employers often aim to avoid failure rather than ensure success in hiring, and that hiring managers often believe that following a predefined and structured hiring process is most likely to lead to a successful hire.

关键字:劳动力;雇用;能力

Introduction

Evolving economic and technological advances have affected the work environment and the workforce, including the health information management profession. Finding a competent person for each job is more critical than ever. “Almost one half of new hires fall short of expectations, predominantly because of fit issues, rather than technical competence.”1A survey by a Washington-based research firm showed that approximately 46 percent of 20,000 new hires failed within the first 18 months.2

Research has shown that finding the right person to fit the right job is a difficult process. Costs surrounding a bad hire have been calculated at 50 to 200 percent of the first-year salary, while the costs of an employee who leaves within the first year may reach 162 percent of the first-year salary.3For example, costs associated with an employee earning $35,000 per year ($16 per hour) could reach $56,700 per year if the placement is unsuccessful—with this cost being exclusive of the cost of bringing on a replacement for the position.

其他发现表明,未能取得成功通常与软技能有关,例如缺乏教练性(26%),低水平的情绪智力(23%),动机问题(15%)和气质问题(17%),虽然仅11%的失败归因于缺乏技术或专业能力。4

The present study employed the Appreciative Inquiry approach to identify respondents’ definitions of competency and the methods used in the hiring process to assess the competency of potential employees.

Methodology

The study was conducted using Appreciative Inquiry, which has recently increased in prominence as an approach for data collection and validation.5欣赏性探究旨在鼓励与过去和现在的能力有关的讨论,包括优势,机会,基准和通过经验获得的知识。

To test the study hypotheses (see below), respondents who took part in focus group discussions were asked a series of questions focused on defining competency and describing hiring practices through real-world experiences. Focus groups of between 6 and 10 respondents were convened for three professions—health information management, restaurant and hospitality, and manufacturing—to ensure a wide breadth of experience and cross-industry consideration.

Respondents were asked first to tell a story about someone they hired who was competent, and then to provide a definition of competency. Second, respondents were asked to tell a story about a time when they hired someone who did not meet their competency criteria (skills and behavioral). Next, respondents were asked to talk about a time when they hired a successful candidate and what processes they followed in assessing the candidate’s competencies. Respondents were then asked to talk about a time when they hired someone who was not successful and what went wrong with the hiring process. Finally, respondents were queried regarding how much importance they place on industry credentials/certifications compared with educational degrees.

Using the constant comparative method, two study researchers independently reviewed responses from focus group transcripts to determine themes and commonalities using a three-step process:

  1. Identification of relevant topics/themes;
  2. 将主题/主题细化为更广泛的类别;和
  3. 选择核心类别和与其他类别的关系评估。

在步骤1期间,对焦点小组成绩单进行了独立审查,每个研究人员都识别相关主题/主题。在讨论之后,在步骤2期间,主题分为更广泛的类别,每个类别的主题较窄。在步骤3中,对连接和条件进行了更广泛的类别和支持主题的审查,并特别注意行业领域之间的相似性和差异。该过程使“故事”能够从焦点小组的讨论中演变。

Hypotheses

研究假设旨在评估与成功和失败的招聘实践有关的因素。假设如下:

  1. 新员工失败的主要原因是筛选评估与招聘过程中使用的工具之间的差异,以定义能力,以及如何在现实世界实践或经验中反映能力。
  2. 如果遵循预定义和结构化的招聘过程,新员工更有可能成功。
  3. 雇主比正式的学术成就更强调与行业相关的证书和认证。

Results

假设1

假设1was that the primary reason new hires fail is a discrepancy between screening assessments and tools used in the hiring process to define competency, and how competency is reflected in real-world practice or experience.

在定义能力时,雇主定义集中在基于任务的项目和最低行为标准上。响应指出的基本项目,例如完成任务并按时完成工作所需的最低水平,以及以下内容:

  • Ability to do the job the employee was hired to do
  • Having the skill set and the desire to constantly try to improve one’s abilities
  • Being accountable and holding others accountable
  • Integrity
  • Literacy (ability to read the training materials)
  • 达到最低绩效标准
  • 执行给定的任务
  • Ability to execute at level of accuracy and speed as required
  • 成熟,表达能力,远见,理解方向,准确性
  • Contributing without hesitation
  • Having the skill and ability to fulfill the job at hand

当雇主被要求讲述一个故事时,他们雇用了符合能力标准的人时,回答包括以下内容:

  • “她能够通过非常少的训练来奔跑并奔跑。”
  • “当她进来时,她的价值观和目标已经与我们的目标保持一致。有时候,这些价值观很难评估,但我们的匹配非常好。”
  • “It was her drive.”
  • “Her willingness to basically do anything and do whatever it took to get the job done; willingness to float; made her versatile, adaptable.”
  • “She was a great cultural fit . . . believe[d] in our core values.”
  • “Come in and be flexible; easygoing . . . the right fit”
  • “一个团队 。。。一起工作”
  • “Care about each other.”
  • “Be adaptive to the situation.”

额外的分析研究问题的回声es the findings of the preceding questions with regard to the areas of greatest importance in ensuring a successful hiring decision. Responses related to the hiring of an individual who did not meet competency criteria indicated a number of issues, including that the individuals lacked knowledge in required subject areas or displayed negative character traits such as aggression or a lack of specific necessary workplace skills. In addition to noting candidates’ lack of time management or other skills, respondents indicated:

  • “It ended up that he was a really bad fit because he was just an angry person. He said some of the nastiest things to his co-workers.”
  • ”她测试well, was well-spoken; she was working remotely and when things needed to get done, was very disorganized in her personal life which spilled over into her professional life; time management was an issue.”

In addition, respondents mentioned that while candidates met the criteria required of the position in terms of their background or experience, they lacked needed interpersonal skills or failed to demonstrate the knowledge and skills outlined in their resumes. Further, while individuals may possess desirable skills, it cannot be assumed that they are a good fit for an organization in terms of culture and environment, nor do they necessarily possess the determination or drive to excel in a position.

假设2

假设2was that new hires are more likely to succeed if predefined and structured hiring processes are followed.

Findings related to this hypothesis suggest that to help prevent the hiring of candidates who are a poor fit for the role or organization, respondents followed predefined steps within documented processes and procedures to ensure that candidates were appropriate and met the specified criteria. These steps included the use of phone screenings, in-person interviews, and application tracking systems. Respondents noted specifically:

  • “For the in-person interviews, we always have two people interviewing together so that they can each have a dialogue afterwards and share their experiences and reflect on some of the things that get said, and then we also do reference checks and use an assessment tool and we rely on that pretty heavily.”
  • “We use an application tracking system, phone interviewing, consistent hiring procedures, interview guides, questions regarding behavioral assessment—each step is a funneling process.”

While these types of processes assist in ensuring successful hires, deviations from them are not uncommon, and may result in the need for remediation. Respondents provided examples of issues that arise from circumventing the formal hiring practice, including the following:

  • “我在走廊上跑进我们的CEO,他的样子, ‘Oh, I’ve been meaning to come and talk to you. I hired somebody. I probably should have talked to you first.’ . . . Fast forward 90 days. I run into him in the hallway and he’s like, ‘Oh, I’ve been meaning to come talk to you. I just fired somebody. I probably should have come and talked to you first.’ It was the same guy.”

Though often cumbersome, respondents explained that ensuring that applicants are brought on through the same hiring and on-boarding process allows for consistency of experience with the organization as well as employee education. Working around interview and hiring processes or using methods other than the formal process were also noted across industries to more often lead to bringing on individuals who are a poor fit for the role and organization.

假设3

假设3was that employers place more emphasis on industry-related credentials and certifications than on formal academic attainment.

关于行业证书/认证和教育程度的重要性,反应因行业以及行业中的角色而异。餐饮业的受访者指出,人们对经验而不是教育或凭据的关注越来越多,并指出许多职位是入门级或小时的,因此在完成任务所需的知识,技能和能力方面,要求与其他行业略有不同与位置相关。包括健康信息管理在内的其他行业的受访者指出,凭证和证书的重要性因角色而异。尽管证书和认证被认为对“编码/编码专业人士”角色非常重要,但对于中间经理的角色,教育和证书被认为同样重要,而对于领导角色的人来说,教育学位的人被视为关键,而行业证书被视为行业证书是至关重要的。不太关键。

Respondents from all groups noted the importance of hiring the candidate who is the best fit, not only for the position, but also for the culture and environment of the organization. Unsuccessful hires were noted as being those in which candidates were selected with the primary objective of “filling a place” or “finding someone,” rather than finding the appropriate candidate and ensuring that the individual met all needed criteria. Further, respondents noted that candidates must be selected on the basis of their drive to personally succeed as well as to help the organization succeed, rather than settling for a hire who will simply “not fail.”

Conclusion

Data from this study show that employers’ definitions of competency are not aligned with narrative stories of successful hires. The employee characteristics identified in the description of successful hires seem to be aligned with the National Network of Business and Industry Associations Common Employability Skills model. When describing successful hires, employers across various industry sectors included in this study expressed to varying degrees the importance of personal skills such as dependability and integrity, people skills such as teamwork and respect, applied knowledge skills such as reading and mathematics, and workplace skills such as problem solving and decision making. Measures of competency addressed more technical skills such as meeting minimum standards, having the ability to do the task, understanding directions, and maintaining accuracy. Comments suggested that most employers, when defining competency in the hiring process, hire not to fail rather than to succeed. This finding is further supported by the belief that following a predefined and structured process in hiring will more likely lead to a successful hire. Although some employers had “gut feelings” when hiring a new employee, most relied on the process to ensure a successful hire.

资金

ACT基金会和国家商业和行业协会网络提供了资金支持。

William J. Rudman, PhD, RHIA, is the executive director of the AHIMA Foundation and vice president of education visioning for AHIMA.

Susan Hart-Hester, PhD, RHIA, is the senior research specialist for the AHIMA Foundation.

John Richey, MBA, RHIA, FAHIMA, is the manager of VLab curriculum and training for AHIMA.

Rhia的Kathryn Jackson是Ahima基金会的研究经理。


笔记

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  3. Tannahill, Glenda K.一项针对IT工人在招聘广告中的软技能的研究。PhD dissertation, Capella University, 2007. Available athttp://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.571.902&rep=rep1&type=pdf
  4. Murphy,M。“为什么新员工失败(情绪智力与技能)。”
  5. Clouder,Lynn和Virginia King。“什么有效?对欣赏性探究作为一种研究方法/神学的批评。”在Jeroen Huisman和Malcolm Trigh(编辑)中,高等教育研究的理论和方法。Bingley, United Kingdom: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015, pp.169–90. Available athttp://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/S2056-375220150000001008

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William Rudman, PhD, RHIA; Susan Hart-Hester, PhD, RHIA; John Richey, MBA, RHIA, FAHIMA; and Kathryn Jackson, RHIA. “Hiring for Competency: Hiring to Not Fail vs. Hiring to Succeed.”健康信息管理的观点(2016年夏):1-6。

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